How did we view the night sky in the past?

I am continuing with the space theme as it involves so many aspects of science and history.
Since the mid nineteenth century, man has had the technology to view our solar system and beyond. This image is of an important instrument in the history of astronomy. What is its name?
In order to find the answer you need to follow the prompts…

Which famous university in North America has an astrophysical observatory in partnership with the Smithsonian?

This object features a certain type of lens, which provides a clue to its name. What type of lens is used?

Isaac Newton developed another type of this instrument. What was different about his invention?

Looking forward to your responses, Dr Mackey

A very old and important instrument  used to view our solar system.

A very old and important instrument used to view our solar system.